Water is a well known vehicle for transmitting diseases, the most serious of which come from ingestion typhoid, dysentery and cholera. In addition there are minor ailments, such as ear and eye infection and skin lesions, which are contracted merely by contact with the water. Respiratory disease may also be contracted without ingestion, since the mucous surfaces are the probable points of entry of the infectious organisms.
In the drinking water, the pathogenic bacteria of primary concern are Salmonellae and Shigellae: in swimming pool waters, there are additional organisms of concern: streptococci, Staphylococci and possibly respiratory virus. Myco bacterium balnei is presumed to be the causative agent of granulomatous skin lesions in swimmers; there have been reports that tuberculosis infection may be possible as a results of Myco bacterium tuberculosis, which may be present in swimming pool water. Ear infection in swimmers known as otitis externa, is connected with presence of pseudomonas aeruginosa as the principal causative agent.
While swimming pools are a potential source of anxiety to the health authorities, since it is possible for them to spread the usual respiratory, dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders, there is no epidemiological evidence to indict swimming pools as a major health problem. Nevertheless the leading authorities are aware of the vigilance required to eliminate, insofar as is possible, the hazard that does exit. The goal is to make certain that all installation will be adequate to insure a healthful bathing environment. As per the investigation of the health aspects of swimming pools showed that the incidence of disease in swimmers was double the of non swimmers and that more than half of the reported illness concerned the eyes, nose, throat and ears. The health authorities therefore conclude that there must be available at all times an active disinfection in sufficient concentration to effect prompt and continuous pollution control.