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Plumbing is the practice, materials and fixtures used in the installation or maintenance of all pipes in connection with both water supply and sanitary systems within or adjacent to any building. The entire system of piping, fittings and the appurtenances are known as plumbing system. Sanitary plumbing system includes the pipes, fittings are the appliances used in a house plumbing system, to receive the human excreta and sullage wastes of the house. Sanitary fittings are :

  1. Water closets (WC),
  2. Urinals,
  3. Flushing cistern for water closets
  4. Bath tubs,
  5. Washing basins,
  6. Kitchen sinks.

The waste water is generated through the sanitary fittings. The provision of an efficient sanitary plumbing system for collection and movement of the waste water to the nearest municipal sewer is an important aspect of the building construction.


The sanitary plumbing system should be designed keeping into consideration the following general principles:

  1. For better maintenance of Waste Water treatment system, the sanitary pipes should be preferably laid into the ground by the side of the building rather than in walls or underground.
  2. Vertical pipes in buildings should be kept outside and accommodated in shafts, to avoid their bad appearance.
  3. Horizontal pipes should be laid straight and at grade between inspection chambers.
  4. All sharp bends and junctions should be avoided and made through inspection chambers.
  5. The entire plumbing system should be ventilated.
  6. The house sewer should be connected to the street sewer, keeping the outfall level of the house sewer sufficiently higher than the water level of the public sewer to avoid back flow.
  7. The plumbing system should contain enough number of traps, to avoid evolution of foul smells and the efficient function.
  8. Laterals should be laid at sufficient slope so as to develop self-cleansing velocities.
  9. The joints of the pipes should be made watertight.
  10. The layout of the system should be such as to permit easy cleaning in case of blockage.
  11. High quality sewer pipe should be used in the system.
  12. Possibilities of formation of air locks, siphon age, deposits, etc., should be properly studied and remedies should be accommodated in the design to avoid them.
  13. Rainwater from the roofs or open yards should not be allowed to mix with house sewage.


  1. Ripple Technologies Mart says:

    Hello. I am from the construction field and I love to know about new things which are related to construction work. Thanks for updating this.

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