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ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential)

ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential)

ORP Applications Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine...
Water Quality and Standards

Water Quality and Standards

 WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS History of Water Quality Standards Importance of Water Quality Standards National and International Water Quality Standards Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics    Water is very important for our life. Therefore, water must be free from organisms that are...
How to Analysis Sulphate in Water

How to Analysis Sulphate in Water

Determination of Sulphate Sulphate ions in water present usually in the form of compounds like CaSO4,MgSO4,Na2SO4 etc.  The determination of sulphate ions is water in based on the fact that when water is treated in cold with benzidine hydrochloride solution, the sulphate ions get precipitated as...
Determination of Temporary Hardness

Determination of Temporary Hardness

Estimation of  Water Hardness The estimation of water hardness as applied to boiler water and other water is great interest for the chemical industry in general.the determination of water hardness has always been an especially important factor in the manufacturing control of sugar industry,...
Chlorides in Water

Chlorides in Water

Chloride Analysis  Chloride the chloride ions remain presents in the water in the form of one or more of the compounds like CaCl2, MgCl2,NaCl and etc. The estimation of chloride ions is generally, made by titrating the water sample against a standard solution of silver nitrate using potassium...
ALKALINITY WATER ANALYSIS

ALKALINITY WATER ANALYSIS

Alkalinity in Water Alkalinity means the find the amount of acid  neutralizing in water. Alkalinity is the total of all bases that occupying in the water and basically find in carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide. More alkalinity level can make scale formation. Total Alkalinity maximum level is...
DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER This involves tests for the Determination of Total solids in water treatments Total solids  are considered to be the sum of dissolved and suspended solids. In water sources, the dissolved solids, which usually predominate, consist mainly of inorganic salts, small amount...
ESTIMATION OF WATER HARDNESS

ESTIMATION OF WATER HARDNESS

Water analysis Estimation of Hardness of water :  Hardness of water is conveniently expressed in terms of dissolved salts of calcium, magnesium and iron—calculated as parts of CaCO3 equivalent per million parts of water (ppm). If a sample of water contains Ts parts of calcium carbonate...
WATER HARDNESS

WATER HARDNESS

Temporary and Permanent Hardness For convenience, hard water is classified as Temporary Hardness and Permanent Hardness Temporary Hardness: Temporary hardness is due to the presence of soluble bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium and iron in water. Permanent Hardness: Permanent hardness  is caused...
Water Diseases

Water Diseases

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