Water | Water Treatment | Waste Water Treatment | Water Treatment Process & Plant Design
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HARD WATER

HARD WATER

Basic Water Characteristic. The water used by industry for boiler feed or process purposes may be taken from public supplies, or abstracted directly from wells, lakes or rivers. In Great Britain, town mains water will have been treated to render it largely clear and colourless, free from odour, and...
PROPERTIES OF WATER

PROPERTIES OF WATER

Characteristic Properties of Water Pure water is virtually a non-conductor of electricity. On heating to a very high temperature water molecules are dissociated into the elements. The formation of water front hydrogen’ and oxygen is an exothermic reaction: H2+ ½O2 =3 H20...
Water Treatment for Industry

Water Treatment for Industry

 Water Treatments in Industry The quality and quantity of available of water treatment product water are important in the location of a chemical plants. Both, surface and ground water should be considered. Supply of water must be adequate throughout the year and this supply should not disturb the...
Water Storage Reservoirs

Water Storage Reservoirs

Shapes of the Water Storage Reservoir Water Storage reservoirs are constructed with square shape water storage reservoirs, rectangular shapes water storage reservoirs and circular shapes water storage reservoirs. Special shapes like in the type, conical and spherical types are elegant in appearance...
SERVICE RESERVOIRS

SERVICE RESERVOIRS

Water Treatment Reservoirs Water supply sources, such as wells or water treatment plants, operate best at steady, design rates over relatively longer periods of time. However, demand in the water treatment distribution system constantly fluctuates. Most water treatment distribution systems...
RECORDS AND REPORTS

RECORDS AND REPORTS

Water Treatment Reports A record system has to be developed which should be realistic and applicable to the operating problems involved in the Transmission system. Management must be clear as to why the data/ information are collected, as to who will review the data and who will respond to the...
Scraping and Relining

Scraping and Relining

Scraping and relining is applicable to old tuberculated CI mains, which are structurally sound. Pipe scraping methods include drag scraping, power boring and pressure scraping..Pigs or aggressive swabs comprise plastic swabs incorporating grades of wire brush or studs. For harder encrusted...
Advantages and disadvantages of Swabbing

Advantages and disadvantages of Swabbing

The advantages of swabbing of pipeline are :  The technique is simple and cheap,  It is free from mechanical gadgets,  It does not require much opening of the trenches, if adequate facilities are provided in the pipeline for insertion  and exit of swab,  Regular swabbing once in a year keeps...
Procedure for Cleaning with Swab

Procedure for Cleaning with Swab

In distribution systems where hydrants are connected vertically above a main without a duck- foot bend, the insertion of swab and expulsion from the pipe are carried out at the hydrants. In situations, hydrants are laterally connected to the main insertion of the swab has to be either through an...
Cleaning of Pipes

Cleaning of Pipes

Cleaning of Pipes The necessity for systematic and periodic cleaning of pipelines is borne out by the fact that the carrying capacity of the pipes gets reduced due to growth of slimes, incrustations or deposits. Pipeline cleaning techniques include flushing, swabbing, jetting and scraping. Flushing...
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